Populist, extremist or anti-system parties are not new in the European political scene. At various times in contemporary history, Europe has experienced the rise and development of politicalmovements that havemade extremismthe particular characteristic of both their politicalmessage and theirmodus operandi. A rather unusual phenomenon is instead related to the so-called “anti-party parties”, which have become more prominent in several European countries in recent years. This book focuses on two such extremely diverse examples as the Italian and the German case, presenting studies ofthe anti-party parties in the two systems produced by an experienced group oflegal and political science scholars. This approach pursues two goals: on the one hand, to explain the characters, as well as to highlight similarities and differences, of the examples of anti-party parties existing in Italy and Germany, in orderto enhance our understanding ofthis political phenomenon; on the other hand, to explore whetherthis study can provide useful elements in orderto determine whetherthe “anti-party party”is a model on its own ratherthan an operative method that all politicalmovements, extremist ormainstream,might adopt at some pointin the near future – especially ifit should happen to appear successful at the polls. Should the second hypothesis be confirmed,we could be dealingwith awidespread “anti-party” state-of-mind very soon. In any case, it seems that the time to start adequate investigation of this phenomenon has finally come.